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5-9 класс

12) The system is subject to frequent false alarms.  INFORMATION ROOM The 'Information room' is in the headquarters of the police force and is manned day and night by a team of specially trained police officers. The Information Room receives all emergency calls from the public and directs patrol cars to the scenes of crimes, accidents, or other incidents requiring police help. The Information Room also keeps in radio touch with the patrol boats on the Thames and patrol helicopters.  The room consists of a number of telephone booths, which are connected with the emergency-call system of the town or city (the '999' calls) and wh ere calls from the public for police help are received. A large table in the middle of the room is covered with a detailed map of the police district, showing all the streets and the patrol areas of the police cars. The cars themselves are shown by coloured tokens - cubes, pyramids, or circles - which represent the type of duty on which the cars are engaged and which are moved about on the map according to the information which comes in from the observers. The radio operator in touch with the cars is placed so that he can see the table and at the same time get messages from the telephone operators. A senior police officer supervises the whole room. When a call for help comes in, the telephone operator calls out the name of the street as soon as he gets it and then goes on to take down details of the crime, accident, or whatever it may be. The radio operator or the supervising officer meanwhile notes which car is nearest to the scene and instructs it to start moving in that direction. As soon as the rest of the details are known, they are passed on to the driver and observer, but the chief aim is to get the car moving towards the spot first. Between three hundred and four hundred calls are dealt with in London every day, on public holidays, or on other occasions when big crowds gather, there have often been more than a thousand calls for help at Scotland Yard (headquarter of the Metropolitan Police) in one day. The usual time lag between a report to the information room and the arrival of a car on the spot is about four minutes. It has on occasions been even less. In one recent case in London, a report was received in the information room at Scotland Yard to the effect that two thieves were trying to break into a warehouse. A police car happened to be turning into the road wh ere the warehouse lay as the report was being made. The address was relayed immediately to the car, and the thieves were caught before the individual making the report had finished talking. The whole incident took less than two minutes. The system suffers from false alarms, but not as much as the other emergency-call systems such as the fire alarms. False police alarms are also easier to trace. An annoying outbreak of false calls in Birmingham was cleared up simply by keeping the caller talking while the call was traced. A police car was on the spot in less than a minute and the offenders, four schoolgirls, were caught red-handed. (They later admitted that they had been making the calls from different parts of the town and had then retired to hiding-places near by in order to enjoy the excitement of watching the cars arrive.)

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11) Solicitors usually work on their own. SOLICITORS AND BARRISTERS There are over 90,000 solicitors and 14,000 barristers - as of 2003. The failure rate in achieving a lasting career is one in three as a barrister. This is probably due to the difficulty in earning a regular wage and the costs of working 'in chambers'.  Not all solicitors practise - about 25% of them work in-house for companies and other profit or non-profit making organizations and the government. The specialist area of law will determine the amount of advocacy that barristers are involved in. Some areas of law will usually involve more advocacy (for example, criminal, family and employment) - commercial usually less so.  Barristers are self-employed and they are responsible for all their own paperwork such as VAT, tax and expenses that is why they work together in chambers to share the costs. Solicitors are usually employed.  Solicitors can usually only advocate in the lower courts, such as Magistrates Courts; they can pursue higher rights of audience should they wish to do so when they have taken the appropriate training and qualifications. Barristers have the right of audience in all courts.  The client's contact with their Barrister is through the Solicitor who will usually choose which Barrister to instruct and act as an intermediary. For solicitors there is a contractual relationship with the Client and they can be sued for professional negligence As a result of a decision of the House of Lords in 2000 it was determined that Solicitors are liable for their advocacy in court as well as their work out of court, this ruling also applies to barristers. Barristers only specialize in a particular area of law; solicitors can also specialize but usually do general work as well.  Barristers cannot turn down work as their Code of Conduct has a 'cab rank' rule - they must accept any case they are offered subject to availability of time, suitability within their own specialty or giving a good reason. The normal way to become a solicitor is obtain a law degree then pass the Legal Practice Course (LPC); this is a further course of study, designed to prepare you for work in a solicitor's office, which takes a year. After this you then spend two years working in a solicitors' office under a training contract.  If you don't have a law degree then you first of all must take a Graduate Diploma in Law (GDL) then take the LPC. You must have a law degree to train as a barrister.

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10) Di wants an order only against Mr. Taylor, who took the shots with a hidden camera. SPY PHOTO CASE Next February 13 has already been set as the date for the start of her High Court hearing against Mirror Group Newspapers and ex-gym boss Bryce Taylor.  Di has given a witness statement and the case is expected to last a week. Anthony Julius, head of litigation at her solicitors Mishcon de Reya, said it was possible she would give evidence for up to a day. Mr. Julius said: "The principle is that people who break confidences shouldn't profit from their bad behaviour." Di has refused pleas to settle privately against New Zealander Mr. Taylor, who took the shots with a hidden camera, and Mirror Group Newspapers which published them. The Princess wants an order against Mr. Taylor and MGN for profits they made. Mr. Julius said the profits could top one million pounds - and that the Princess may well decide to give any money she recovered to charity. Mr. Taylor's solicitor, Razi Mireskandari, said: "If she doesn't appear I would say her case is much weakened."

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10) Di wants an order only against Mr. Taylor, who took the shots with a hidden camera. SPY PHOTO CASE Next February 13 has already been set as the date for the start of her High Court hearing against Mirror Group Newspapers and ex-gym boss Bryce Taylor.  Di has given a witness statement and the case is expected to last a week. Anthony Julius, head of litigation at her solicitors Mishcon de Reya, said it was possible she would give evidence for up to a day. Mr. Julius said: "The principle is that people who break confidences shouldn't profit from their bad behaviour." Di has refused pleas to settle privately against New Zealander Mr. Taylor, who took the shots with a hidden camera, and Mirror Group Newspapers which published them. The Princess wants an order against Mr. Taylor and MGN for profits they made. Mr. Julius said the profits could top one million pounds - and that the Princess may well decide to give any money she recovered to charity. Mr. Taylor's solicitor, Razi Mireskandari, said: "If she doesn't appear I would say her case is much weakened."

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9) In the claim form, the claimant must state the amount of their claim, the name of the judge and request the defendant to pay all of legal costs of the case. STARTING A CLAIM IN THE CIVIL COURT When you are in dispute with another person sometimes it is necessary to start a claim in the civil court. We sometimes call this process "filing a claim" or "issuing a claim". Lawyers also say, "starting proceedings". We do not use the verb "to prosecute" in civil law because that verb is only used in criminal law. In England most civil claims are filled in the County Court. There are over 200 County Courts in England and Wales. Most cities and large towns have a County Court. The person who starts the claim is called the claimant in the UK. This person was called the plaintiff until 1999, when there are new court rules in England to make everything easier for people to understand. However, in the USA the claimant is still called the plaintiff. In both England and the USA the other party is called the defendant. A claim form is the document that a claimant uses to start legal action against the defendant. Why might a claimant start a claim? There are a lot of reasons, for example: - someone refuses to pay you money that they owe to you - someone does a job for you, but they do it badly - we call this bad workmanship - something that you paid for is not supplied to you - something that you bought is not working properly. The claimant has to pay a sum of money, called a court fee, for the court to issue proceedings. In the claim form, the claimant must state the amount of his or her claim and request the defendant to pay all of legal costs of the case. Sometimes people talk about "the small claims court". They really mean the special procedure that exists at the County Court for small claims. A small claim is a claim for a maximum amount of 5000.

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In the USA a lawyer is simply known as an attorney at law, or an attorney. TYPES OF LAWYERS  There are two types of lawyer who practise in England. They are called barristers and solicitors. In the USA and most other countries, lawyers don't make this division - a lawyer is simply known as an attorney at law, or an attorney. In both England and the USA, it is not possible to take a special exam to be a judge. If you decide that you want to be a judge, you must get a lot of experience as a lawyer first, then apply to be a judge and wait to see if you are chosen. Most law students in England become solicitors. When they finish their university studies they do a one year legal practice course and then a two-year training contract with a law firm. After that, they are qualified solicitors. Many solicitors work for a legal practice, which is usually a partnership of solicitors who work together. Solicitors practise in many areas of law, although each solicitor usually chooses to specialize in one particular area. They represent their clients both in and out of court. We often describe this as acting for a client. The process of making a claim in the civil court is called litigation. Barristers are self-employed lawyers and don't work in partnerships in the way that solicitors do. They are specialists in advocacy, which is the skill of speaking for someone in court. We call this pleading a case. They also give opinions on areas of law to solicitors and the solicitors' clients. It is not just barristers who have the right of audience in court - solicitors are also allowed to represent their clients in court and many solicitors appear in court every day. It is not true to say that a client always needs a barrister in court.

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YI. Определите, является ли слово с окончанием–ing герундием или деепричастием I. Предложения переведите.

1. I was writing a letter when she came.
2. He watched the students working.
3. He is interested in collecting coins.
4. I remember his first coming.
5. Coming to Leningrad I went to Hermitage.
6. They were seen crossing the bridge

YI. Определите, является ли слово с окончанием–ing герундием или деепричастием I. Предложения переведите.

1. I was writing a letter when she came.
2. He watched the students working.
3. He is interested in collecting coins.
4. I remember his first coming.
5. Coming to Leningrad I went to Hermitage.
6. They were seen crossing the bridge

Написать e-mail

А)Ознакомьтесь с форматом написания e-mail
Правила написания Email на английском

Для написания email официального стиля (электронное деловое письмо) следуйте всем выше перечисленным правилам, касающимся официального стиля (пункты 1-11). Неформальное электронное письмо начинается, как правило, следующим образом.

Dear Han,
Hi, Ivan,
Hi, Kate,
Sue, Brooke:
Good morning, Kitty,
Hello, Homer,

Или просто начните первое предложение с имени:

Bart, you were absolutely right about the matter.

Главными преимуществами электронной почты (e-mail) по сравнению с обычной почтой, или snail-mail, «улиточной» почтой, как её в шутку называют по-английски, являются ее скорость и прямая, без посредников, связь с адресатом. Мы отправляем электронное письмо с целью получения быстрого ответа или ожидаем от адресата каких-либо быстрых действий. Независимо от того, является ли электронное письмо формальным или неформальным, оно должно иметь четкую логичную структуру. Электронное письмо должно быть коротким и содержать понятную адресату информацию об основном содержании сообщения.
Электронный адрес
В верхней строке формы электронного сообщения вводится адрес электронной почты (e-mail address). Следите за его правильностью, так как при отсутствии всего одного подчеркивания или точки письмо не дойдёт до адресата.

Тема
Тема электронного письма (subject line) – важная составляющая его структуры. Иногда можно слышать мнение, что в неофициальной переписке тему указывать необязательно. Однако этикет современного электронного письма требует, чтобы тема в нем была, независимо от того, кому предназначено сообщение. Наличие темы – дополнительный знак, показывающий заинтересованность пишущего в установлении хороших отношений с адресатом. Соответственно, отсутствие темы в электронном письме – знак пренебрежения адресатом.

Приветствие
Так же, как и при написании обычного письма, электронное письмо на английском языке начинается с формального или неформального приветствия. Форма приветствия определяется во многом тем, знаком ли вам человек, к которому вы обращаетесь в письме, и каков уровень этого знакомства. Если вы незнакомы с адресатом лично, но знаете его имя, обращайтесь к нему Mr / Mrs / Ms (обращение Ms, в отличие от Mr и Mrs, не является аббревиатурой и используется по отношению к женщине, чье семейное положение вам неизвестно). Обращение Dear Sir or Madam используется в случае, если вам неизвестен пол лица, к которому обращаетесь, например, если вы пишете письмо о приеме на работу в компанию и вам известна только должность адресата. Если же вы уже встречались с человеком и обращались к нему по имени, такая же форма обращения допустима и в электронном письме. Иногда, в процессе обмена сообщениями e-mail, если переписка носит длительный характер, можно обращаться к адресату просто по имени.

Первое предложение
Первое предложение в электронном письме на английском языке должно начинаться с большой бувы, независимо от того, поставили ли вы запятую после приветствия (наличие или отсутствие запятой после приветствия – дело вашего личного выбора). Более формальное письмо на английском языке может начинаться, например, так: I’m writing to …. (сообщение о цели письма). Пример начала менее формального письма: Just a quick note to…

Заключение
В заключении следует указать, какие действия вы ожидаете от собеседника. Например: Looking forward to your reply. (более формальное заключение) или Hope to hear from you soon (дружеское завершение письма в разговорном стиле).
Вежливая концовка письма

Как и в обычном письме, концовка может быть формальной (Yours sincerely, если вы обращались к адресату по имени или фамилии) универсальной (Regards / Best wishes – эти формулы подходят как для формальных, так и для неформальных писем) или разговорной, неформальной (например, Love / Yours / Bye / the Best / Best или просто имя или инициалы отправителя, например: Jane / Tom). Запятая после концовки письма ставится в случае, если вы поставили ее в начале письма после обращения (например, Dear Sir, …….. Regards,). Если же вы не ставили запятую после обращения, то не следует ее ставить и в концовке.

Вложения
Вложения прикрепляются нажатием соответствующей «кнопки» (Прикрепить документ) под текстом электронного письма. Следует обязательно указывать в самом тексте письма о том, что в нем есть вложения. Например: Enclosed is…

Следуя этим простым правилам, вы сможете правильно оформить электронное письмо на английском языке.

Б) Напишите собственное сообщение, адресуя вашему преподавателю, сообщите причину вашего отсутствия на уроке и спросите о домашнем задании

Люди ПОМОГИТЕ срочно!!!нужно написать 2 текста 7 предложений.1 ТЕКСТ моя любимая еда - my favourite dish.2 ТЕКСТ моя любимая знаменитость(рассказ про неё и

о внешности её )-celebraty. Эти два текста нужно на 7 предложений срочно ПЛИЗЗЗЗЗ!!!



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